SOUTHERN ONTARIO MINING HISTORY

E.B. Freeman, Ministry of Northern Development and Mines

7,500 BC: Sheguiandah quartzite quarry, Manitoulin Island.

Pre 1650: Porte de l’Enfer, red ochre mine, Mattawa River.

  1.    Ontario’s first blast furnace for iron a Lyndhurst (Furnace Falls), Leeds County. Soon abandoned, the ore came from the nearby Bastard Township.

  1.    Second blast furnace erected in Charlotteville Township, Norfolk County. Unsuccessful.

  1.    First locally made bricks produced in Toronto.
  2.    Blast furnace erected in Marmora Township, Hastings County. Ore obtained from the Blairton Mine, Belmont township, Peterborough County. This furnace was unsuccessfully operated on several occasions until closure in 1847.
  3. Ontario’s first gypsum mine opened on the banks of the Grand River at Paris (this was only the second discovery of gypsum in North America and the first in Canada).

  1.    A brick factory was established in Peterborough.
  2.    First mention of a graveled street in Ontario, King Street, Toronto.

  1.    A flast furnace erected in Olinda (Gosfield), South Township, Essex County. Local bog iron ore from Colchester Township was used.

  1.    A limestone quarry opened at Thorold for the first natural hydraulic cement manufactured in Ontario.

  1.    Wallace copper "mine" discovered at White Fish River on the north shore of Lake Huron. First discovery of nickel in Ontario occurred here. No production.

  1.    First well dug for petroleum near Oil Springs, Lambton County.

  1.    Canada’s first phosphate (apatite) mine, North Burgess Township, Lanark County.

  1.    North America’s first commercial oil well drilled near Oil Springs.
  2.    Oil extracted by distillation from bituminous shales near Craigleith.
  3.    Ontario’s first phlogopite mica mine (Pike Lake Mine), North Burgess Township, Lanark County.

  1.    Molybdenite mined at Harvey Hill, Leeds County.

  1.    Frontenac Lead Mine opened, Loughborough Township, Frontenac County.
  2. First discovery of gold in Ontario (Richardson Mine) at Eldorado.

    First production of salt in Ontario, from a well drilled at Goderich in search of oil.

  1.    Salt produced at Seaforth from a brine well.
  2.    Globe Graphite Co. produced from North Elmsley Township, Lanark County.
  3. First recorded commercial shipment of apatite (phosphate) in Canada, from North Burgess Township, Lanark County.

    Ontario’s first arsenic producer, near Deloro.

  1.    First made-in-Canada clay-working auger machine for brick manufacture; London.

  1.    Lacey Mine, Loughborough Township, Frontenac County begins production of phlogopite mica. Became one of the world’s largest producers of this mica. Crystals were found to 9 feet in diameter.

  1.    Actinolite mining begins in Hastings County.
  2.    Discovery of the Kingdon Lead Mine, Fitzroy Township, Carleton County, Ontario’s largest lead producer until superseded by Texasgulf Inc.’s Ecstall Mine in 1970.
  3.    Mining of marl for the manufacture of portland cement, first quarry at Strathcona, Lennox and Addlington County.

  1.    First commercial natural gas wells discovered in Ontario; near Port Colborne and Gosfield Township, Essex County.
  2. Graphite discovered on the shore of Whitefish Lake, Renfrew County (this later became Ontario’s richest graphite mine, the Black Donald mine).

  3.    Ontario Bureau of mines organized.

  1.    Graphite mining begins on the orebody that later becomes the Black Donald mine.

1897: Long Lake zinc mine begins production, Olden Township, Frontenac County.